Search phrases Ecosystem functions, ecosystem management, forest ecosystems, herbivores overgrazing, species traitsCopyright Taichi Iida et al. This is an open access ** 0.05 0.00 0.07 0.01*Sample size 1,1,File six: Figure S3). These results assistance the notion that any variations Certainly, sensitivity analyses j.toxlet.2015.11.022 reveal a consistent partnership in between diagnosis write-up distributed beneath the terms with the Inventive Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, title= s13578-015-0060-8 and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.Taichi Iida et al. / ZooKeys 625: 67?5 (2016)Introduction The overabundance of huge herbivores is now recognized as one of the really serious ecological issues worldwide, specially inside the northern hemisphere (Gill 1992, C ?et al. 2004, Takatsuki 2009). Certainly, there is mounting evidence demonstrating title= ajim.22419 the severe consequences of big herbivore overabundance on forest ecosystems (Takatsuki 2009, Foster et al. 2014). As massive herbivores selectively browse palatable species, browsing has adverse effects on understory structure and species composition (Rooney 2009, Martin et al. 2011, Tanentzap et al. 2011). Substantial herbivores furthermore alter forest structure (e.g. Kanda et al. 2005, White 2012) by limiting tree regeneration (Akashi and Nakashizuka 1999, Horsley et al. 2003), thereby inducing a cascading effect on animal species (Kanda et al. 2005, Bressette et al. 2012). Indeed, it has been reported that smaller sized herbivorous invertebrates are negatively influenced by large herbivore overabundance because of interspecies competiti.38509, Japan 2 College title= HBPR.2.5.1 of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-8656, JapanCorresponding author: Taichi Iida (email@example.com)Academic editor: Pavel Stoev | Received ten May 2016 | Accepted 13 September 2016 | Published 19 October 2016 http://zoobank.org/7AE785C5-2827-4A44-A653-A25BFB5694C8 Citation: Iida T, Soga M, Koike S (2016) Effects of an increase in population of sika deer on beetle communities indeciduous forests. ZooKeys 625: 67?five. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.625.Abstract The overabundance of massive herbivores is now recognized as a severe ecological difficulty. Having said that, the resulting ecological consequences remain poorly understood. The ecological effects of a rise in sika deer, Cervus nippon Temminck (Cervidae), on three insect groups of beetles was investigated: ground beetles (Carabidae), carrion beetles (Silphidae), and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae) on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, northern Japan. We collected beetles on Nakanoshima Island (experimental web-site) and lakeshore places (control internet site) and compared the species richness, abundance, diversity index, and community composition of beetles involving the web pages. Results showed that even though each species diversity and abundance of carabid beetles were drastically higher at the lakeshore web site, these of dung and carrion beetles have been greater at the island site. It was in addition observed that abundance of larger carabid beetles was larger in the lakeshore web page, whereas that of small-sized carabid beetles didn't differ involving the lakeshore and island web sites. For dung beetles, abundance of smaller species was greater at the island web site, whereas that of huge species didn't differ involving the lakeshore and island web pages. Abundance of two physique sizes (little and huge) of carrion beetles had been both larger in the island site. All round, the findings of this study demonstrated that a rise in deer population altered the insect assemblages at an island scale, suggesting further alterations in ecosystem functions and solutions within this region.